Hepatitis c virus hcv infection is the most challenging public health problem in egypt where the prevalence is the highest in the world and its history, epidemiology, risk factors, genotype and. The american university in cairo school of global affairs. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections from 1950s to 1980s led to widespread infection. Acute hcv infection is typically defined as a new occurrence of viremia with conversion from an hcv rnanegative to an hcvpositive status. An egyptian pioneering test for hepatitis c virus a step forward to fight an endemic egyptian disease and a long. Gbd 20 mortality and causes of death collaborators.
Hcv infection is expected to be even a greater public health problem. Its hepatitis c prevalence is among the highest in the world cdc, 2012. Hepatitis c australian government department of health. Hepatitis c is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis c virus hcv. Yet, the challenge facing many individuals and countries today lies with their ability to access these treatments due to their relatively high prices. Curing hepatitis c, in an experiment the size of egypt. In the united states and most developed nations, where the prevalence of infection is l%2% 5, 6, hcv is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. The centre for communicable diseases and infection control, public health agency of canada the agency, is pleased to present the report on hepatitis b and c in canada.
Directacting antivirals achieve a permanent cure in over 90% of cases and have little or no sideeffects. The hepatitis c epidemic in egyptthe country with the highest prevalence of the disease in the worldstarted around 50 years ago, when the government was attempting to get rid of one plague. Hepatitis c virus infection in egypt journal of high institute of. This report is intended to provide information on trends in cases and rates of hepatitis b virus hbv and hepatitis c virus hcv infection to those who are concerned with the public health implications of these. However, since 2012, the rate has increased by 12% from 44. The recent introduction of direct acting antivirals daas for treating hepatitis c virus hcv can significantly assist in the world reaching the international target of elimination by 2030.
Full text detection of hepatitis c virus hcv among. The prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection in egypt 2015. These complications, unfortunately, are becoming increasingly common as egypts infected population ages. The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected. Egypts fragmented health system has made it difficult to maintain and reinforce national standards in health, dr bekedam says. Female genital cutting and hepatitis c spread in egypt. Hepatitis c in egypt past, present, and future ncbi. An estimated 170 million people worldwide have hepatitis c virus hcv infection. The recent advent of directacting antivirals1 has revolutionised the treatment of hepatitis c. Pdf hepatitis c in egypt past, present, and future.
Occasionally a fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow tinged skin occurs. The disease can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. About 150 million people are chronically infected, four times as many as have h. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis c virus hcv in the world, estimated nationally at 14. At present, there is a continuous flow of immigrants from the south of the world to northwestern countries. A literature search of pubmed was performed using the following keywords. Hcv infection frequently persists and may cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A case study on hepatitis c in egypt, unpublished thesis, law department, american university in cairo, december 20, available at. Characterizing hepatitis c virus epidemiology in egypt. Egypt ranks first worldwide in terms of the rates of chronic hepatitis infections who, july 2012. For some people, hepatitis c is a shortterm illness but for 70%85% of people who become infected with the hepatitis c. Some people recover on their own, while others develop a lifethreatening infection or further complications, including cirrhosis or cancer.
Geospatial epidemiology of hepatitis c infection in egypt 2017 by. Progress toward prevention and control of hepatitis c. Year number tested number positive percent 2011 5683 12 0. Hepatitis c is a chronic, often dormant infection, with most individuals living asymptomatically for decades before developing complications. Often immigrants originate from areas of highprevalence of viral hepatitis and pose a challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations.
Agespecific hcv antibody and rna prevalence in egypt in. Ahmed rady stressed on saturday that egypt has become the worlds target in the treatment of the hepatitis c virus hcv after great efforts in providing free treatment for patients, pointing out that 1. Hepatitis c is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis c virus. Hepatitis c information division of viral hepatitis cdc. Overall there was a 15% decline in the hepatitis c notification rate in australia between 2007 and 2016 from 58.
Fighting hepatitis c in egypt middle east institute. Why egypt is at the forefront of hepatitis c treatment. Genotypes a genotype is a complete set of genes that makeup a cell, organism, or individual. In 2010, it was estimated that 786 000 deaths worldwide were attributable to hepatitis b and 455 000 to hepatitis c, making hepatitis b the 15th ranked and hepatitis c the 22nd ranked cause of death worldwide 2, 3. Pdf the epidemiology of hepatitis c virus in egypt.
Jake lippincott, eipr issues statement calling for increased access to hepatitis c drugs, daily news egypt, 3 march 2014. Egypt has the largest burden of hcv infection in the world, with a 10% prevalence of chronic hcv infection among persons aged 1559. Egypt ranks number one worldwide in terms of hepatitis c hcv prevalence. Early on chronic infection typically has no symptoms.
The following background data on hepatitis c in egypt are abstracted from gideon. Antiviral medicines can cure more than 95% of persons with hepatitis c infection, thereby reducing the. Egypt health issues survey 2015 fr3 the dhs program. These complications, unfortunately, are becoming increasingly common as egypt s infected population ages. Progress toward prevention and control of hepatitis c virus infection egypt, 20012012.
Egypt is the country with the highest hcv prevalence in the world. Hepatitis c in egypt past, present, and future ahmed elgharably,1,2 asmaa i gomaa,2 mary me crossey,1,2 peter j norsworthy,1 imam waked,2 simon d taylorrobinson1 1division of digestive health, department of surgery and cancer, st marys hospital, imperial college london, london, uk. The road to elimination of hcv in egypt easl international liver. Estimate of hcv disease burden in 20 and 2030, in egypt. On the occasion of world hepatitis day 2015 egypt has been chosen by the world health organization to host the ceremonial event. Egypt is a rare example of a country with high hepatitis c prevalence and commitment to treatment. But the national hepatitis plan for 20 2018, drawn up by the national viral hepatitis committee, the ministry of health and supported by health partners, places a strong emphasis on prevention. The 2015 ehis is part of the dhs program which is funded by the united states agency for international. Hepatitis c virus hcv is a parenterally transmitted pathogen that has infected about 185 million people worldwide1 and is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Aims of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and virological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis c virus hcv infection in. Worldwide, 170 million persons are living with chronic hepatitis c virus hcv infection 1, which, if left untreated, can result in cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Pdf hepatitis c viral infection is endemic in egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. For reasons that are not known, less than half of people who get hepatitis c. The direct health impacts of hepatitis c in egypt are immense. This research examines state actions and inactions with regards to the right to health of already infected patients. Hepatitis c in egypt gideon global infectious diseases.
Percent of men and women with hepatitis c antibody by age in egypt in a 2008 12 and b 2015. Advances in the treatment of hepatitis c virus infection from easl 20. Pdf hepatitis c in egypt past, present, and future researchgate. The state of hepatitis b and c in the mediterranean and. Risk factors associated with high prevalence rates of.
Pdf egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis c virus hcv in the world. Hepatitis c virus hcv is a global health threat, with egypt having the highest prevalence worldwide. The final analysis included articles written in english, with a casecontrol or longitudinal study design, and restricted to. The 2015 egypt health issues survey ehis was conducted on behalf of the ministry of health and population by elzanaty and associates. Hepatitis c is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis c virus hcv that primarily affects the liver. Diagnosis, management and prevention of hepatitis c. However, egypt has established a successful national treatment programme towards the goal of hcv elimination. Read a national strategy for the elimination of hepatitis. During 2016 in the united states, 18,153 hepatitis crelated deaths were reported to the national vital statistics system, representing a 6. Hepatitis c viral infection is endemic in egypt with the highest. An educate, test, and treat programme towards elimination. Curbing hepatitis c virus spread in egypt the lancet. Applying these methods for hepatitis c virus hcv in egypt would support a more. Our studys objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of hcv infection among the different population groups in egypt, and to draw analytical inferences about the nature of hcv transmission in this country.
Hepatitis c viral infection is endemic in egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. Hepatitis c hcv can cause both acute and chronic infection. The prevalence and burden of hepatitis c virus hcv in egypt is one of the highest in the world, with an estimated 7% of the population living with hepatitis c viraemia. Today, most people become infected with the hepatitis c virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Genetic epidemiology of hepatitis c virus throughout egypt. Price, profits, and barriers to access the world health organization has dubbed hepatitis c a viral time bomb, and estimates that there are as many as 185 million people, or 3% of the worlds population, currently living with the hepatitis c virus hcv. Seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus in iraqi population. Egypt has the highest prevalence rate of hepatitis c virus hcv in the world, making it the most challenging public health problem facing the country. The prevalence of hepatitis c virus hcv infection in egypt is the highest in the.
Ascertaining the specific hepatitis c genotype helps determine treatment recommendations options for patients. Hepatitis c is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in egypt. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the egyptian ministry of. Global, regional, and national agesex specific allcause and causespecific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990 20. Hcv rna can be detected in the serum in almost all patients within 12 wk of exposure. Hepatitis c in egypt past, present, and future article pdf available in international journal of general medicine volume 10. Acute hcv infection is asymptomatic in the majority of cases. Egypt is the most affected nation by hepatitis c virus hcv and needs a comprehensive characterization of hcv epidemiology to inform the scaleup of. When someone is first infected with the hepatitis c virus, they can have a very mild illness with few or no symptoms or a serious condition requiring hospitalization. During the initial infection people often have mild or no symptoms. State of egypts response to hepatitis c world bank documents. Estimating prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection in. Treatment of hcv in egypt has become one of the top national priorities since 2007.461 216 1393 484 636 1346 1394 40 259 1016 682 1351 688 1371 1233 1420 1482 1189 1401 492 1346 1364 1491 602 766 261 1165 38 730 1314 552 938 1176 1069 50 596 185 603 918 1394 1055 639 957