At the death of dingiswayo, in battle, at the hands of zwide, king of the ndwandwe, shaka became head of the mthethwa empire, in 1818. Existing famines also worsened during the mfecane, leading to the origin of a few cheap jokes about european missionaries being cooked up. The notion of the mfecane and the origins of the amamfengu have prompted intense debate and polemical discussion among a wide range of scholars. The mfecane spread from there, leading to the formation and consolidation of other groups such as the matable, the mfengu and the makololo and the creation of states such as the modern lesotho wikipedia, 2008. Click download or read online button to get the mfecane book now. Mfecane also known by the sesotho name difaqane or lifaqane was a period of widespread chaos and warfare among indigenous ethnic communities in southern africa during the period between 1815 and about 1840. The origin of mfecane war was shakas expansion policy which led to the conquering neighbouring states in 1828 to 1834 james2010. The zulu kingdom and the mfecane saint marys university. From small tribe to empire, the effects of mfecane and the flight of the jele ngoni the original zulu tribe was a small one. Shakas zulu kingdom and the mfecane wars, 18171828 until the late eighteenth century the bantuspeaking mixed farmers south of the limpopo river lived in small chiefdoms. A nineteenth century reuolution in bantu africa argues that the wars and migrations of the mfecane were the by. Rescrambling southern africas mfecane migrations john wright school of anthropology, gender and historical studies university of kwazulunatal, pietermaritzburg campus march 2006 the mfecane was a notion that existed virtually unchallenged in the imaginations of large numbers. Shaka, zulu chief 181628, founder of southern africas zulu empire.
The zulu kingdom and the mfecane weapons and warfare. Causes of mfecane several reasons have been advanced by scholars for the outbreak of the mfecane. Political changes from 1750 to 1835 the section below on the mfecane can be used as an introduction to this section. The mfecane reached its zenith with the political rise and military growth of the amazulu empire under king shaka. The idea that the period of social turbulence in the nineteenth century was a consequence of the emergence of the powerful zulu kingdom under shaka has. We first learn of the zulu as a minor tribe of the bantu people, living in south africa. Drought and overpopulation were also factors in the mfecane because they led people to fight over water and land. The crushing series of zulu and other nguni wars and forced migrations of the second and third decades of the 19th century that changed the demographic, social, and political configuration of southern and central africa and parts of eastern africa.
Although no one can pinpoint exactly what caused the mfecane, most believe the causes emerged at the end of the eighteenth and the start of the nineteenth centuries. Apr 02, 2018 the rise of the zulu empire under shaka forced other chiefdoms and clans to flee across a wide area of southern africa. Rise of the zulu people under king shaka zulu after the mfecane, the black peoples were living in an area shaped like a horseshoe. By the 1960s, the mfecane and zulu nation building were being given a positive spin considered more as a revolution in bantu africa, where shaka played a leading role in the creation of a zulu nation in natal. The early history of south africailovepdfcompressed. These africanists now explain the origins of the revolution by what omercooper 1966. The title was a play on the name of john omercoopers 1966 publication,the zulu aftermath. As he built up a large military empire in southeastern africa, he forced many conquered groups off the lands where they had lived. Effects of mfecane on southern and central africa free. A social and economic history of the african people of. The mfecane was set in motion by the rise of the zulu military kingdom under shaka c. According to davies,2003the word mfecane is from zulu words. Their overall explanation is that by the late eighteenth century there had been an increase in the nguni population of zulu.
Mfecane refers to a period of political disruption and population migration in south africa to other areas during 1820sand 1830s europeans called mfecane as wars of calamity by 1825, two and half millions starring homeless people wondered about south africa looking for respite. A n e is a tenacious and stillevolving multiple theme in the historio graphy of the apartheid state. The military inventions of the zulu state spread into different parts of central and southern africa. His life is the subject of numerous colourful and exaggerated stories, many of which are debated by historians. There, they destroyed the portuguese settlement at delagoa bay. Mfecane was unquestioned fact of southern africa until the 1980s. African resistance to the boers, the rise of the zulu peoples and their expansion northwards at the expense of other bantu groups. Coined the term mfecane in the zulu aftermath in 1966. Colony of natal and zululand together with tribal groups in the early to mid19th century.
As a result of the mfecane, a series of states formed throughout. Shaka zulu was successful in establishing zulu dominance in southern africa because he was a great strategist and military innovator. Aug 30, 2011 the usual rationalization with respect to the zulu themselves within the construct that cobbing attacked was more or less the attitude that the early 19th century zulu were more or less a phenomenon akin to the 17th century jagas found in portuguese historical sources on congo and angola. Shaka would rise to power among the ranks in the mthethwa empire, under the rule of dingiswayo. The mfecane led to the creation of strong centralised new states that is, the zulu under shaka, ngwane under sobhuza, ngoni states, ndebele and kololo. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were sometimes scarce. This area to the east of the drakensbergs and the eastern escarpment benefits from prevailing winds off the indian ocean. In shaka zulu, otherwise known as shaka kasenzangkhona or king shaka,was a very militaristic king and was known for his peerless leadership. Its basic propositions are integral to a white settler, liberal history which gestated for over a century before lvalker. As king shaka created the militaristic zulu kingdom in the territory between. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. The story of africa is a twenty four part narrative history of. United kingdoms meteorological offices coupled global atmosphere. One of the main causes of the mfecane was the growing power of the zulu leader shaka.
His political objective was to expand his territory with the. Therefore one can note that several factors have contributed to the mfecane rather blaming the zulu for war and labeling them as blood thirst tribe. Mar 27, 2015 zulu empire and the flight of zwangendaba jele. Existing famines also worsened during the mfecane, leading to the origin of a few cheap jokes about european missionaries being cooked up in big, bubbling. The debate on the mfecane that erupted following the publication in. Shaka defeated zwide and then he crafted his zulu kingdom. Jun 07, 2016 african resistance to the boers, the rise of the zulu peoples and their expansion northwards at the expense of other bantu groups. The crushing, sotho difaqane, series of zulu and other nguni wars and forced migrations of the second and third decades of the 19th century that changed the demographic, social, and political configuration of southern and central africa and parts of eastern africa. Moshoeshoe similarly created the sotho kingdom in what is now lesotho as a defense against zulu incursions. Shaka was born in 1787 and was the child of nandi, a daughter of bhebhe, the past leader of a rival tribe, and senzangakhona kajama, who was a zulu chieftain. The causes and impact of the mfecane in south africa essay.
Shaka zulu, the man who would organize them into an empire, was born the illegitimate son of a zulu king. Jun 06, 2012 topic discuss the causes of the mfecane, taking into consideration the variety of historiography on this event. Pdf the mfecane is thought to be a massive upheaval and. Wars and disruptions took place, but most of them were not caused by shaka and the zulu. Political changes from 1750 to 1835 south african history. The notion of the mfecane and the origins of the amamfengu have. Statebuilding in natal the northern nguni lived in modern day natal and zululand.
Clans fleeing the zulu war zone included the soshangane, zwangendaba, ndebele, hlubi, ngwane, and the mfengu. Historia 54,1, meimay 2009, pp 159179 159 shaka the great jeff peires among several welcome signs that the gloom and doom which has for too long enveloped south african historiography is finally beginning to lift,1 one ominous portent continues to threaten. Mfecane the image of africa and the land question by toby chance august 20 on february th 20, dr pieter mulder of the freedom front plus and deputy minister of agriculture, gave a speech in parliament inflaming a decadesold debate. The zulu kingdom was rather small and insignificant until king shaka ruled c. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The effects of mfecane can be grouped into positive and negative effects. Rise of the zulu people under king shaka zulu top of page chief soshangane after the tribes of zwide, soshangane, zwangendaba and nxaba,had been defeated by shaka, they fled to mozambique. The mfecane and its effects the single event that made the most profound effect on central and southern africa in the nineteenth century.
Initially, the zulu was a small clan of the larger nguni ethnic. The tswana and pedi lived in the west and the venda, shangaan, tsonga and swazi lived in the north. May 16, 2015 we first learn of the zulu as a minor tribe of the bantu people, living in south africa. From the 1810s until its destruction by the british in 1879, the zulu kingdom was the largest in southeastern africa, occupying most of what is today kwazulunatal province, in south africa. The mfecane is thought to be a massive upheaval and devastation of nguni tribal chiefdoms in the second decade of the 19th century in what is now kwazulunatal and the eastern cape of south africa. A number of clans were caught between the zulu empire and advancing voortrekkers and british empire such as the xhosa.
In 1991 a colloquium was held at the university of the witwatersrand, johannesburg, south africa, entitled the mfecane aftermath. Zulu revolution within the culturalhistorical context of nguni society. The zulu nation was rapidly rising during that time, and its effect was the presence of the intensification of mfecane war by the shaka even though mfecane war began way before shaka was officially inaugurated as the chief of the zulu. It is important to note that caps 2011 does not require it to be covered in detail as it is now considered outdated.207 827 78 197 721 725 571 164 713 530 424 253 1300 253 3 1518 1199 630 97 544 1265 681 118 1382 608 121 1524 1307 729 1374 158 1173 1227 772 524 321 463 1361 766 65 923 1403 387 859 230 787